Some words used to describe pet diabetes may be confusing. Here is a list of terms you may want to get familiar with and can help:


Relating to glands that release hormones directly (without a duct) into the bloodstream or lymph system.


Formed by the combination of breakdown products of glucose and protein. It is elevated when blood glucose concentration has been higher than normal. Fructosamine concentration reflects blood glucose concentration over the preceding few weeks.


A simple sugar that is the major source of energy for many organisms.


A common condition of older cats that has characteristic clinical signs related to overproduction of thyroid hormones. This condition can also be present in pets with diabetes mellitus.


A peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas that helps cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream.


Acids that appear in excess in blood and urine when there is an insulin shortage and the body is using fat instead of glucose for energy. High ketone concentrations in the blood can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Clinical signs of DKA include vomiting, fruity breath odor, and rapid breathing. Untreated DKA can lead to coma and death.


Inflammation of the pancreas, an organ that produces insulin and enzymes for digestion. The pancreas is located behind the lower part of the stomach. Pancreatitis can lead to the development of diabetes.

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